Turquoise Identification

Turquoise varies in quality from Gem quality to low grade “chalk”.

  • Gem quality turquoise is hard
  • Low grade turquoise is soft.
  • Turquoise is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminum and is formed by the percolation of meteoric or groundwater through aluminous rock in the presence of copper. For this reason, it is often associated with copper deposits as a secondary mineral. Turquoise is most often found in arid, semiarid or desert places.

Turquoise attains it’s color from the heavy metals in the ground where it forms.

  • Blue turquoise forms when there is copper present, which is the case with most Arizona turquoise. 
  • Green turquoise forms when there is iron present, the case with most Nevada turquoise. Matrix is the host rock.

Tucson Turquoise offers many varieties of turquoise jewelry, with an emphasis on American Southwest turquoise.  The following is a list of turquoise varieties from the American Southwest, mainly mines located in Nevada and Arizona. Please note that even the “experts” are uncertain of the origin of some specimens. Turquoise color, matrix, and density can vary greatly from a single turquoise mine site!

  • Royston is a district in Nevada consisting of three mines: Bunker Hill, Oscar Wehrend and the largest producer, Royal Blue.  Royston turquoise is known for its beautiful colors ranging from deep forest green to rich, light blues set off by a heavy, brown matrix. The Royston district is still producing some turquoise of high quality but in limited supply.

Royston Turquoise   

  • Stormy Mountain turquoise mine is located in Elko County, northeastern Nevada. Along with Blue Diamond mine, Stormy Mountain is known for producing hard, dark blue turquoise that includes a blotchy, black chart matrix. This mine is presently not active, so it has particular appeal.
  • Indian Mountain is the best known of the contemporary mines.  Indian Mountain mine is in Lander County, Nevada.

INDIAN Mountain

  • Pilot Mountain is located in Esmeralda County, Nevada.  Pilot Mountain turquoise ranges in color from blue to green with a dark brown, black or reddish matrix. This stone is admired for its deep blue-green colors.

Pilot Mountain 2

  • Turquoise Mountain  and “Bird’s eye” turquoise come from the same mine in Northwestern Arizona near the Kingman mine, Mineral Park Mining District. The mine was closed in the 1980’s. Turquoise Mountain turquoise is light to high blue with both webbed and non-webbed matrix. “Bird’s eye” describes stones from this mine that show areas of light blue circled with dark blue matrix resembling the eye of a bird.

Turquoise Mountain

  • Cerrillos turquoise mine, located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico, is one of the most famous prehistoric mining districts in the American Southwest. Cerrillos is the only turquoise that formed at the base of a volcano; thus, a variety of colors developed from the minerals in the various volcanic host rocks. Seventy-five colors have been identified, from tan to khaki-green to rich, blue-green to bright, light colors. There are more than two hundred dig sites located there and the largest and most famous are the Blue Bell, Castilian and Tiffany mines.

Cerrillos 4

  • Red Mountain is located in Lander County, Nevada. This mine has produced a large quantity of graded turquoise and the best Red Mountain turquoise rivals some of the high quality turquoise produced by the best mines in the Southwest. Red Mountain turquoise has an intricate often red spider web matrix.
  • Red Mountain 2
  • King’s Manassa turquoise is from a mine is located in Manassa, Conejos County, Colorado.  Manassa turquoise is best known for its rich, brilliant greens and golden matrix. Blue and blue-green turquoise has been found in these deposits as well.

Kings Manassa

  • Kingman mine is located in Mohave County in western Arizona. The copper mining in the Mineral Park Mining District around Kingman has produced a larger supply of turquoise throughout the years. The matrix of most Kingman is naturally white but is usually dyed to black with shoe polish.

Kingman Turquoise

  • Cripple Creek turquoise mine is located in Teller County, Colorado and was discovered when miners looking for gold in the area also found turquoise deposits. Two separate mines are currently active in the area both under the Cripple Creek name.

Cripple Creek Turquoise

  • Blue Gem turquoise was mined approximately 6 miles south of Battle Mountain, Nevada, within a large copper-mining operation. Blue Gem mine produced almost every shade of green and blue from intense blues to deep green combinations with a hard, irregularly distributed matrix. Of the multiple Nevada mines that are named Blue Gem, the Battle Mountain Blue Gem mine, which began production in 1934, yielded the most valuable Blue Gem turquoise due to its rich color and hardness. This mine is now closed and is highly sought after by collectors.


  • Fox  is one of Nevada’s most productive turquoise mines.  The area produces a huge amount of good quality green or blue-green stone with a distinctive matrix.

FOX Turquoise

  • Number 8 mine is in Calin, Nevada, and was at one time a gold and copper mining operation on the west side of the Tuscarora Mountain Range.  In its prime, enormous nodules were found, including one that weighed 150 pounds. Number 8 turquoise is famous for its black, golden-red and brown spider web matrix set off with the unique bright powder blue turquoise background. The mine is now depleted and Number 8 turquoise is extremely valuable.

Number 8 no.2  

  • Sleeping Beauty mine, located near Globe, Arizona, produces a solid, light blue color with no matrix and is used in many styles of American Indian jewelry. A favorite of Zuni silversmiths, Sleeping Beauty is often used in needlepoint, petite point and inlay jewelry because of its consistency in color and is easy to cut. This mine is one of the largest in North America and is relatively abundant and affordable. Sometimes black is added to sleeping beauty to add definition demonstrated in the example.

sleeping beauty Turquoise   

  • Lone Mountain aka Blue Jay Mine turquoise mine, located in Esmeralda County, Nevada, once produced a great variety of turquoise. Usually found in nodules and is noted for some of the finest examples of spider web turquoise as well as clear, deep-blue stones.  Among “classic” American turquoise, only Lander Blue is more valuable.

Lone Mountain   

  • Morenci  turquoise is mined in southeastern Arizona, Greenlee County. It is high to light blue in color with an unusual matrix of irregular iron pyrite or “fool’s gold”  that when polished, often looks like silver. The name is derived from the large open pit Morenci copper mine where a great deal of turquoise from.  The mine is now depleted, which makes it collectible.


  • Lander Blue  turquoise is from a mine in Lander County, Nevada and was first claimed in 1973.  It produced some of the most beautiful spider-webbed turquoise ever discovered. It is considered the rarest and the most valuable turquoise. Less than 110 pounds of this beautiful spider-web turquoise was ever mined.

Old lander5

  • Bisbee turquoise is from the Lavender Pit copper mine that is now closed. Bisbee turquoise is famous for its deep blue color and smoky black matrix. Most of this turquoise has already been mined, so it is a highly collectible variety of turquoise.

BISBEE Turquoise    

  • Stone Mountain is a small mine in Northern Nevada. The mine produces a fine hard gem grade turquoise with colors ranging from a variety of greens to a medium blue. It can be slightly translucent with markings of limonite.


  • Carico Lake turquoise is named after the location of its mine on a dried up lake bed in a high, cool area of Lander County, Nevada. It has been marketed under names such as Aurora and Stone Cabin. Its clear, iridescent, spring-green color is due to its zinc content and is highly unique and collectible. Carico Lake turquoise is also found in a dark blue-green color with a black, spider web matrix. The Carico Lake mine is primarily a gold producing mine but from time to time the mining company leases the turquoise producing part of the mine to individual miners who are permitted to work that part. Mines in this district also produce faustite, an apple-green mineral similar to turquoise but identified as a separate mineral in 1953.

Carico Lake Turquoise    

  • Candelaria turquoise mine is a small Nevada mine that produces very little stone and is only occasionally worked. The turquoise is of good quality and is a high blue color with an intermittent black or brown, non-webbed matrix.


  • Damele (Variscite – see definitions page)aka Damali mine is located in east-central Nevada near the Carico Lake mine. Damele turquoise is quite distinctive because the zinc content turns the stone yellow-green and increases its hardness. The matrix of Damele is webbed with a dark brown to black matrix.


  • Dry Creek turquoise mine is located on the Shoshone Indian Reservation near Battle Mountain, Nevada.  The lack of any specific color consistency makes this stone distinctive and unique from other turquoises. Because this turquoise is as rare as the sacred buffalo, the Indians call it “Sacred Buffalo” Turquoise.

Sierra Exif JPEG  

  • Easter Blue mine is located northwest of Tonopah, Nevada a few miles from the Royston district. Turquoise from this claim has also been called Blue Mountain and Blue Gem.  It was discovered in 1907 and the first material found was a fine blue color, usually occurring in thin veins, later the mine produced a blue green turquoise with a light to dark brown matrix.


  • Godber-Burnham  mine is located east of Austin, Nevada and was discovered in 1932. First claimed under the name “Last Chance”, it was later sold to Frank Burnham and then in 1934 to Walter Godber. The turquoise ranges from medium to dark blue usually with a beautiful spider webbing. It has also been know for a very dark or black mottling forming blotches and veins running through the stone.

Sierra Exif JPEG

  • Nevada Blue became famous in the 1970’s with its beautiful turquoise and its wide spread use by most all of the well-known Native American jewelers, including Charles Loloma and Lee Yazzie. Discovered by Jim Watts in 1901 and first known as the Watts mine then the Pinto, Nevada Blue ranges in color from sky blue to a rich dark blue with a reddish brown or sometimes black spider-webbing.

Nevada Blue Turquoise

  • Blue Moon turquoise mine was active until the late 1970′s in Esmeralda County, Nevada. . Typically, light-sky blue with a dark brown to black matrix.

Blue Moon Turquoise Ring

  • Orvil Jack discovered and developed the mine in northern Nevada that bears his name. The area where the mine is located is called the Blue Ridge in Crescent Valley.  The rare yellow-green color of the turquoise comes from the zinc content. Only a small amount is now being produced.

Orvil Jack Turquoise

  • Ajax  mine is located in south-central Nevada in the Royston area. A relatively new mine that yields stones from light blue with darker blue veins to a predominate dark green with light blue veins. The dark green with light blue veins is considered quite unusual for turquoise.

Ajax Turquoise Turquoise Cabochon 1993 – 2014 © Schannep Ventures L.L.C. All Rights Reserved

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Turquoise cabochons from Western American Turquoise Mines